Stroke: Researchers use an AI model to predict a person's 10-year risk

Stroke: Researchers use an AI model to predict a person’s 10-year risk

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A new study has used artificial intelligence and a single chest X-ray to predict the risk of dying from a stroke or heart attack over 10 years. Andriy Onufriyenko/Getty Images
  • Each year, approximately 15 million people worldwide experience a stroke.
  • A person may have better outcomes after a stroke if treated early.
  • In a new study, researchers used artificial intelligence and a single chest X-ray to predict the risk of dying from a stroke or heart attack over 10 years.

Each year, around 15 million people around the world suffer a stroke, causing around 5 million deaths and leaving another 5 million disabled for life.

A person’s outcome following a stroke depends on how quickly they receive treatment once symptoms appear.

Recently, researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital developed a deep learning model using artificial intelligence (AI) and a single chest X-ray to help predict a person’s 10-year risk of dying from a stroke. stroke or heart attack.

The results of the study were presented at the end of November at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) in Chicago.

Stroke is a type of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A stroke occurs when a person’s blood vessels to the brain become blocked or burst.

There are two main types of stroke:

There are a number of risk factors for stroke, including:

Common symptoms

Symptoms of a stroke can develop very quickly or slowly over hours or days. Typical symptoms of a stroke include:

  • numbness or weakness, especially if only one side of the body
  • inability to speak or understand speech
  • vision problems
  • dizziness and loss of balance
  • severe headaches

The America Heart Association (AHA) advises that if you think you or someone else may be having a stroke, you should use the QUICK test to identify symptoms:

  • F: drooping face
  • A: arm weakness
  • S: speech difficulty
  • T: it’s time to call 911

Although doctors can treat a stroke, outcomes are determined by the severity of the stroke and how quickly a person receives treatment.

According to Dr. Nicole Weinberg, a cardiologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, Calif., who is not involved in the new study, many people may assume that a chest X-ray only looks at the lungs.

But when a radiologist takes a picture of a person’s chest, they will also see other organs in the lung area, including the heart.

“If the heart is really big, if it’s deformed in some way, the radiologist can give us an idea (of that),” Dr. Weinberg said. Medical News Today.

“They can also see the aorta – if this is enlarged or there are calcium deposits, it will light up. You can also see in the lung tissue if there is fluid buildup at the base of the lung fields or in the spaces within, so there may be heart failure or extra volume in the system.

The researchers developed a deep learning model using artificial intelligencee(AI) for the current study.

The team used a CXR-CVD system that had been “trained” to search more than 147,000 chest X-ray images from nearly 41,000 participants in a trial to screen for cancer and localization patterns associated with cardiovascular disease.

Once developed, the system could predict the risk of a stroke or heart attack over 10 years from a single chest X-ray.

The study’s lead author, Jakob Weiss, Ph.D., a radiologist at the Cardiovascular Imaging Research Center at Massachusetts General Hospital and the AI ​​in Medicine program at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, told DTM:

“Current guidelines from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease recommend the use of a risk calculator to estimate the risk of future cardiovascular disease. This risk calculator is based on the ASCVD Risk Score, a multivariate regression model requiring nine input variables, such as age, sex, smoking, lipids, blood pressure, and diabetes. However, these variables are often not available, making new and more practical screening approaches desirable. »

Dr Weiss added that the new AI model takes a routine chest x-ray as the only input, which “allows opportunistic CVD risk screening if variables to calculate the guideline-recommended risk score are missing.” .

Although compelling, the new research is preliminary and longer-term studies are still needed.

Dr. Jennifer Wong, cardiologist and medical director of noninvasive cardiology at MemorialCare Heart and Vascular Institute at Orange Coast Medical Center in Fountain Valley, Calif., who was not involved in the study, said future longitudinal studies could look at outcomes for people with different levels of risk identified on a chest X-ray.

“It’s important to identify people at higher risk for cardiovascular disease early on, and more tools to help identify those at risk are always helpful,” Dr. Wong said. DTM.

“This study did a great job of correlating with the current tool that cardiologists use, the ASCVD risk score, but to see based on where they stratify someone’s risk what happens to the risk of heart attack and stroke of this person 10 (or) 20 years down the road with just a chest X-ray because the tool might be helpful,” she added.

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